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Difference Between BLDC (Brushless DC), Induction Motor And Inverter Motor Technology

Difference Between BLDC (Brushless DC), Induction Motor And Inverter Motor Technology

These days efficient motors can be found with much wide application in most of our household appliances that work on electricity like Air Conditioners, Washing Machines, Refrigerators, etc.

We have seen many people telling us about the particular machine working on Inverter Motor and another machine that is highly efficient on BLDC (Brushless DC motor). Many of us are familiar by its name but are unaware of actual workflow and function.

So in this article, we will find out about these Motors, their functions and the difference between them in detail.

What is a motor made up of?

Before getting into the core, topic let us first know what is motor made up of. A motor is made up of two major parts i.e., a rotor and a stator. As per its name, a rotor is a rotating part inside the motor and stator is a stationary part inside a motor.

These two parts perform a significant function to create movement or rotation using magnetic or electromagnetic energy in a similar way when two magnets get attracted to each other and create rotational motion. Inside the motor, you also see some winding of copper wire or aluminum wire around a steel or iron metallic piece which typically helps in creating an electromagnetic induction for stator.

The magnet that is used in the rotor is either permanent magnet or electromagnet, depending upon the type of motor it is in.

What is a brushless motor?

In a brushless motor, we have permanent magnets instead of electromagnets. A permanent magnet generates a DC (direct current) magnetic field instead of an AC (alternative current) magnetic field.

So now the magnetic field formed interacts with the magnetic field of the stator to generate motion and the current produced in the electromagnet is dependent upon the speed of motion. When the rotor creates a DC magnet field, the stator should also generate a DC magnetic field.

However, the current that is produced through our electricity is an alternative current (AC). So here comes the role of “Inverter” and an electronic circuit that converts AC to DC depending upon the speed of the motor to make it function properly.

These BLDC (Brushless DC motor) are not only found in fans, but they are also found in other home appliances like AC and refrigerator. Here the question may arise that do I need to purchase an external inverter for invertors based air conditioner or another device? The answer is no because they already are in-built within your appliances.

BLDC motor is lighter compared to its conventional parts, which have the same output and also do not produce much noise and they are very efficient.

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Pros
  • One of the main benefits of BLDC motor over induction motor is, it produces less heat and thus is more efficient.
  • Can be easily connected to solar power or a battery power since both generate DC power.
  • This motor works almost at the unity power factor. This means if you are on a commercial or industrial connection where you may consume high power which you are fined for lousy power factor if you do so, you don’t have to worry because you can immediately change to BLDC motor for saving your electricity.
  • These motors are very powerful with a higher speed range and tremendous dynamic response.
  • These motors are suitable for high-speed application like 10,000 RPM or above for their excellent speed and low heating capacity
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Cons
  • For bigger loads such as at an industrial scale, it is recommended to use an induction motor with inverter control to have better efficiency. But on an average side, BLDC is best to be used.
  • Using BLDC, may cost you more than conventional motors and also won’t solve your problem regarding its issues as not many technicians are very well aware of this motor.
  • Inverter electronics are complicated to maintain depending upon the climate of a country.

What is Induction Motor?

Coming to induction motors, their main difference in comparison to BLDC is that this motor has an electromagnet based rotor. So, in this case, both the rotor and stator are an electromagnet.

In an induction motor, an electric current produces torque (or a rotation) by maintaining electromagnetic induction. This electromagnetic induction is provided from the magnetic field through its winding and this is the reason this motor is known as an induction motor.

An induction motor has the capacity to work in alternating current (that is from direct electricity which comes to our house) the voltage from the line vary to get different speed from the motor and this is why we use the regulator for our fan to change the speed of its rotation according to the coolness required in our house. Since this motor directly supports AC (alternating current), it does not need an invertor like BLDC motor.

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Pros
  • Induction motors are robust.
  • It can work in any environmental condition say if it is highly polluted or even in an explosive environment.
  • These motors are cheaper and easy to maintain because these do not have brushes slip rings in it.
  • If speed variation is not mandatory, then this motor gives you better efficiency at peak load.
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Cons
  • This motor gives less efficiency as compared to BLDC motors
  • This motor produces high heat, which is the reason that makes this motor less efficient.

Can Induction Motor also work on Inverter Control?

Yes, it can also work on inverter control. Because of this reason, not all inverter ACs have BLDC motors. Many manufacturers use a modulation called PAM (Pulse Amplitude Modulation) or PW (Pulse Width Modulation) circuit that uses Inverter with induction motors. These circuits intelligently vary the alternating current in the Induction motors to vary the speed of the motor. Again there is no such need for an external inverter to use induction motor with an inverter as they are inbuilt.

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